Honey is a sweet, thick, syrupy, aromatic substance produced by bees from the processing of intra- and extra- floral nectar or other sweet juices of plants. These juices enriched with bee secretions from their own body and transferred to the wax cells of the comb, where they are processed and sealed as stock food.
Depending on the nature of the source material from which the honey is produced: honey , honeydew , or mixed. According to the technique of the seizure of the honeycomb : centrifuge, melted, extruded, framework. According to the season of receiving: spring , summer , autumn . In terms of color: water-clear, off-white, pale yellow, lemon yellow, reddish brown to dark brown. Depending on the consistency: liquid, viscous and sucrose, and by the location of the apiary: meadow, field and mountain (forest).
Types of honey
By its origin honey is nectar and honeydew. The outgoing material of nectar honey is nectar that bees collect from flowers of plants , and for honeydew - mildew . The secound is a sweet juice secreted by aphids and other insect, eating the juices of linden , willow , oak and other trees .
Chemical composition of honey
Honey contains many elements and trace elements that are located in the most suitable form for absorption by the body (Aluminum, Boron, Iron , Iodine, Potassium, Calcium, Silicon , Lithium, Manganese, Copper , Magnesium, Sodium , Nickel, Osmium , Lead, Sulfur , Titanium, Phosphorus , Chlorine, Chromium , Zinc) . It is known that in humans and animals many biochemical and physiological processes are carried out with the involvement of trace elements . It has been found that most of the trace elements contained in the bee products are found in the blood, and in some organs of the human . Honey is composed of proteins, vitamins - B1, B2, B3, B6 , K, C, E, pro vitamins - A, PP, organic acids , enzyme invertase , lipase , and many other components which are found in the blood in small amounts.
The main components of honey are:
- Carbohydrates ( 70-80 %) , represented mainly by glucose and fructose, disaccharides sucrose and about 20 other di- and trisaccharides . The total glucose and fructose ranges between 65 - 75%. The sucrose content is below 5% , but in some cases (acacia , lavender, honey dew ) reached 8%.
- Water, which makes about 15-20 % of the composition of the honey. When water content is above 20% , created conditions for fermentation processes.
- Organic acids in small quantities - Gluconic, Malic , Citric , Oxalic , Tartaric, Lactic, Maleic, Succinic acid, Pyroglutamic acid, Benzoic acid, Formic acid.
- Minerals - in the largest amount are: Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, Phosphorus , Sulfur, Magnesium.
- Proteins - 0.1 to 1.5 % .
- Amino acids in honey are about 20 in number - Proline , Lysine , Histidine , Arginine , Threonine , Aspartic acid , Glutamic acid , Glycine , Methionine , Isoleucine , Leucine , Tyrosine , Tryptophan , Phenylalanine and others.